An assignment of debt claim is a process in which an assignor (the creditor) allocates to an assignee (third party) a claim, which the creditor has related to the assigned (debtor). 
This mostly takes place in banking transactions like: 
To get a credit card issued 
To sign a lease 
When applying for a mortgage 
Or when applying for any kind of loan 
Generally, in most such scenarios, the assignee (the banker) requests the assignor (the client) to transfer any claim they have related to the assigned (third party). 
A frequent e.g. is a salary assignment. By filing an assignment of debt claim a banker gets collateral if the debtor is negligent in repayment. They use the assignment claim process to get directly reimbursed from the employer of the debtor. 
The assignment of the debt claim process is of immense use in debt collection
The collection of debt is based on the directive through which the creditor tells the collector to get the payment from the debtor. In this scenario, the creditor is owed the debt collection via the assignment of debt claim. 
Although, there are some businesses and companies that prefer to close any of their receivable accounts, before the payment of debt claims. For this they come to a mutual agreement with a collection company and sell their debts claims to the company. The company that becomes the owner then has the task of collecting what is owed from the debtor. 
An assignment of debt claim is only made when the volume of debt claims are large enough. For this, the debt claim company must be able to analyse the debt repayment possibilities using statistics. When it involves thousands of debt claims statistics are needed, whereas for one or a few claims to be purchased it is akin to placing a bet. 
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